Diesel/Biodiesel

April 6, 2008 at 5:03 pm (technology) ()

1. All vehicles with diesel engines spew a dark black trail of noxious fumes.

Many Americans have not shed the mental image of diesel cars as an environmental nightmare. This partly explains why diesel vehicles account for only about one percent of new car sales in the United States. It’s interesting to note that diesel vehicles in Europe-where by most accounts everything is greener-now account for nearly half of all new vehicle sales. The reality about diesel lies somewhere between Americans’ reluctance and Europeans’ nonchalant attitude about diesel emissions.

When it comes to greenhouse gas emissions, diesels get high marks. There is a one-to-one relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and fuel efficiency. Because diesels are more efficient than conventional cars, they generate less carbon dioxide (the primary culprit for climate change.) However, diesels emit larger amounts of two other pollutants:

  • Particulate Matter: Diesel particulates are harmful to human health as well as aesthetically unpleasing.
  • Oxides of Nitrogen : While less visible, NOx is a key ingredient in the formation of urban smog, and also can contribute to the formation of acid rain.

Are these pollutants a big deal? According to the California Air Resources Board, they are. Currently no new diesel passenger vehicles can be sold in the five states that adhere to the more stringent California requirements: California, Massachusetts, Maine, New York and Vermont. The current diesel Liberty, Beetle, Golf and Jetta, in other words, are 45-state vehicles. For 2007 models, only one 50-state diesel car is on the horizon–the new Mercedes E320 BLUETEC to be introduced in late 2006. The 2007 E320 BLUETEC has NOx emissions that are more than eight times lower than the outgoing 2006 E320 CDI.

2. It’s hard to find diesel fuel.

Finding fuel for diesel vehicle doesn’t require desperate excursions to the truck stop on the edge of town. It only requires a little careful attention to which of your neighborhood filling stations offers diesel. Nearly half of the 180,000 gas stations in the United States serve up diesel to their customers.

3. Using biodiesel in a diesel engine requires a special conversion.

Biodiesel should not be confused with straight vegetable oil, which is untreated oil that some people use as fuel in their modified diesel cars. Biodiesel–a renewable fuel derived from plant oils or animal fats–is a more standardized product that can be used in most diesel engines without any modifications. (Like conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel can only be used in diesel engines.)

Biodiesel can be used in its pure form, which is called B100 (100 percent biodiesel), or can be blended in any proportion with conventional diesel fuel. Common blends include B20 (20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent conventional diesel), and B5 (5 percent biodiesel and 95 percent conventional diesel). According to the Department of Energy, 431 fueling stations in the United States offer commercial biodiesel, although many of these locations sell only low-level blends.

The inconvenience may not be such a big issue–if you’re comfortable with switching back and forth from petroleum diesel and biodiesel, or if you’re willing to take a do-it-yourself approach. Unlike any other fuel for modern engines, biodiesel can be made at home without investing heavily in special equipment or earning a degree in chemistry. Is biodiesel worth the inconvenience or the extra work? That depends how strongly you feel about using a renewable fuel that can be produced domesticall

source by autos.yahoo.com

Permalink Leave a Comment

Bio Diesel

April 6, 2008 at 4:57 pm (Uncategorized) (, )

The Diesel Difference

Diesels are also known as compression ignition engines, and have a different combustion cycle than gasoline engines. In a gasoline engine, fuel is sprayed into the cylinder, mixed with air, and ignited by a spark from the spark plug.

In a diesel, air is drawn into the cylinder and compressed first without fuel present. This compression heats the air to such a high temperature that when fuel is then injected into the cylinder, it combusts. By using higher compression ratios and higher combustion temperatures, diesels operate more efficiently. As a result, diesel vehicles attain better fuel economy than their gasoline counterparts. This fuel economy advantage is enhanced by the fact that a gallon of diesel fuel contains about 10% more energy than a gallon of gasoline. These two factors help modern direct-injection diesels achieve roughly 50% higher fuel economy than their gasoline counterparts. For example, a European model Honda Accord with a 2.2 liter i-CTDi diesel engine is rated at 43.3 MPG, 49 percent higher than the rating of a Honda Accord with a 2.4 liter gasoline engine. The Camry Hybrid is rated at 39 MPG, 10 percent lower than the diesel Accord.

Diesel Emissions

Modern diesels require something of an environmental tradeoff. While generating fewer greenhouse gas emissions (due to greater fuel efficiency), diesels emit larger amounts of two other pollutants:

  • Particulate matter is the black cloud that trails many older diesel vehicles. Diesel particulates are harmful to human health as well as aesthetically unpleasing.
  • NOx, while less visible, is a key ingredient in the formation of urban smog, and also can contribute to the formation of acid rain.

Higher emissions of these pollutants are diesels’ greatest drawback. There has been an ongoing split in diesel emissions regulations in the US between those required by the Environmental Protection Agency, and those required by the California Air Resources Board.

Currently no new diesel passenger vehicles can be sold in the five states that adhere to the more stringent California requirements: California, Massachusetts, Maine, New York and Vermont. The current diesel Liberty, Beetle, Golf and Jetta, in other words, are 45-state vehicles. The EPA, however, is tightening its diesel emissions requirements, and moving them more into alignment with the California requirements. The point at which the two map exactly for passenger cars is called Tier 2 Bin 5 (T2B5).

For a 2007 or later model year diesel passenger car to be sold in all 50 states, it must meet the T2B5 emissions requirements. Currently, there are no T2B5-compliant, 50-state diesel cars. One is on the horizon—-the new Mercedes E320 BLUETEC, to be introduced in 2007. BLUETEC refers to the emissions after treatment system that enables the vehicle to meet the T2B5 standard. The 2007 E320 BLUETEC has NOx emissions that are more than eight times lower than the outgoing 2006 E320 CDI

The Diesel Dilemma

Fuel Economy: 81% of U.S. diesel buyers say they bought a diesel engine for higher fuel economy. U.S. buyers should be aware, however, that in the United States diesel could often be more expensive than unleaded gasoline. (In Europe, diesel is taxed less heavily in Europe, and therefore can be substantially cheaper than gasoline.) Availability: Until cleaner fuel and advanced emissions controls arrive here, availability of diesel models will be limited. New diesels are already absent from five states (California, Massachusetts, New York, Vermont, or Maine) that have stricter air quality standards. At the end of 2006, federal pollution rules will tighten, pushing cleaner diesel models out of the entire U.S. market.
Longevity: Diesel engines tend to last longer than gasoline engines, leading to higher resale values for many diesel-equipped models. Emissions: Particulate and NOx emissions are higher than those of comparable gasoline vehicles. (Most diesel engines can use biodiesel without any modification.)
Power: Diesels provide greater torque, which can be important for drivers who carry heavy loads or tow trailers. Price: Adding a diesel engine to a Volkswagen Jetta adds over $1000 to the car’s price, and in medium-duty pickups the increased cost of a diesel engine can exceed $5000.
Incentives: Future clean diesels will be eligible for the same types of tax benefits that hybrid vehicles receive. Buyers of the Mercedes E320 BLUETEC, for example, qualify for $1500 off of their tax bill. Availability of Fuel: Diesel owners must also cope with a refueling network that is more limited than that of gasoline, although their vehicles’ longer range means they have more time to find a station that sells diesel.

Not an Either-Or Situation

It’s technically possible to use a hybrid drivetrain with a diesel engine. In fact, PSA Peugeot Citroën recently showed a diesel-hybrid prototype: the 307 CC Hybride HDi, a compact convertible that gets 70 miles per gallon, about 30 percent better fuel economy than the existing diesel version. No one makes diesel hybrids yet, mainly because they are expensive. The added benefits come at a double expense—more for the hybrid system and more for the diesel engine. PSA Peugeot Citroën may introduce a diesel hybrid to the market as early as 2010. But no promises yet from the company.

source by autos.yahoo.com

Permalink Leave a Comment

How to Known Personality

April 6, 2008 at 2:53 pm (News) ()

1. We must honest to ourselves

example: we promise to get up 04.00 a.m and we on time get up at the time.

2. faithful to other correct order and all of rule, that is from God or Country

3. Believe to God about  power in our self

4. Patient receive all of  anything  which  has  happened.

5. Controlling our the desire


								

Permalink Leave a Comment

city dream

March 19, 2008 at 2:57 pm (whises)

My city is most beauty than others, where in there I was born, to grow, studied in there, so to shape my city dream, I will do kinds of activities which it will be change my city to be the best city, my activities  namely:

  1. I will study hard to change my life more important, after success I will learned to all society in my city. With high education, society will more essay to think, and create a work.
  2. Create a good Government. To get it must beginning with a good leader, if the leader is prefect so kinds of staff below will work very well, a good leader are :

-         Faithful to the God

-         Faithful to the God delegate

-         Faithful to the Kalifatullah

-         Faithful to the father land

-         Faithful to the parents

-         Faithful to the old brother

-         Faithful to the teacher

-         Faithful to the first education goodness

-         Lovely to everyone

-         To respect to every religions

My wise if society have high education and have religious, so people will have kinds of the matter above. So my city will increase, develop more better than oldest.   

 

Permalink Leave a Comment

Terimakasih Liverpooldian

March 15, 2008 at 10:28 am (sport)

LIVERPOOL – Nama Fernando Torres kini tengah menjadi bahan pembicaraan di Inggris, karena penampilan gemilangnya bersama Liverpool. Tak ingin besar hati, Torres pun mengucapkan rasa terimakasihnya kepada fans The Reds atas prestasi dia saat ini.

Sejak didatangkan dengan bandrol sekitar 20 juta pounds dari Atletico Madrid, Torres memang tidak pernah berhenti untuk mencetak gol.

Terbukti, El Nino sejauh ini telah mencetak 26 gol dari 35 penampilan bersama The Reds musim ini. Torres pun memuji sikap Liverpooldian yang menyambutnya dengan hangat ketika baru tiba di Anfield.

“Saya merasa diterima disini, saya melihat fenomena ini terjadi di setiap pertandingan. Terbukti, mereka meneriakan nama ketika kami melawan Inter di ajang Liga Champions,” puji pemain asal Spanyol itu seperti disitir dari Goal, Sabtu (15/4/2008).

“Mereka membuat saya seperti berada di Atletico. Tapi, pemgalaman ini berbeda dan baru buat saya. Sebab, saya tidak pernah sedekat ini dengan klub sejak saya memulai karir pemain sepakbola,” tegas pemain berusia 23 tahun itu.

 

source by  bola.okezone.com

Permalink Leave a Comment

Ronnie Himbau Barca Beli Lampard

March 15, 2008 at 10:27 am (Uncategorized)

BARCELONA – Terkatung-katungnya masa depan Frank Lampard di Chelsea membuat Ronaldinho merasa iba. Ronnie pun mencoba membujuk klubnya Barcelona untuk membeli Lampard musim mendatang.

Masa depan Lampard memang dipertanyakan. Apalagi, belum lama ini pemain asal Inggris itu juga mempertanyakan sikap manajemen The Blues yang juga belum menawarinya kontrak baru.

Alhasil, gosip miring pun mulai menerpa klub bermarkas di Stamford Bridge itu. Lampard dikabarkan bakal segera meninggalkan Chelsea. Kabarnya, Barcelona dan Juventus akan menjadi klub tujuan dia selanjutnya.

Langkah Barca untuk menggaet Lampard sepertinya lebih diunggulkan. Sebab, Ronnie juga sudah berusaha membujuk pemain berusia 28 tahun itu bergabung dengannya di Camp Nou musim mendatang.

“Lampard merupakan pemain yang luar biasa dan dia sudah menunjukkannya di Chelsea selama beberapa tahun. Tentu, saya akan senang bisa bermain dengannya di Barcelona,” puji pemain asal Brasil itu sebagaimana dikutip Goal, Sabtu (15/3/2008).

Kemungkinan kepindahan Lampard ke Nou Camp memang cukup besar. Pasalnya, mantan pelatihnya di Chelsea, Jose Mourinho juga dikabarkan akan menukangi Barca musim depan menggantikan posisi Frank Rijkaard.

Permainan Lampard memang sempat memukau manajemen Barca dua tahun silam. Dalam pertemuan di ajang Liga Champions itu, mantan pemain West Ham United itu membuat sebuah gol indah ketika The Blues menahan imbang Barca 2-2.

 

source by bola.okezone.com/index.

Permalink Leave a Comment

Etoo Pilih Chelsea Atau United

March 15, 2008 at 10:25 am (sport)

BARCELONA – Akan Bertemunya Barcelona dengan Schalke 04 pada babak perempatfinal Liga Champions disambut dingin Samuel Etoo. Dia menyatakan lebiih ingin berhadapan dengan dua wakil Inggris, Chelsea atau Manchester United daripada wakil Jerman tersebut.

“Saya sebenarnya ingin Barcelona berthadapan dengan Chelsea atau Manchester United. Anda sangat mengerti kenapa pertandingan di sana sangat berat dan Anda memang telah siap untuk berlaga di sana,” tegas Etoo, seperti disitat Goal, Sabtu (15/3/2008).

Sistem yang dimainkan pada babak perempatfinal masih dimainkan pada dua laga, leg 1 dan leg 2. Tapi, buat Etoo tetap saja babak tersebut sangat menentukan perjalanan timnya selanjutnya.

“Babak knockout bisa menjadi jebakan bagi tim-tim yang berlaga di sana. Saya berharap Barcelona bisa lolos dari jebakan tersebut dan bermain baik agar bisa tampil pada babak final,” imbuhnya.

Statistik di atas kertas menunjukkan kekuatan El Barca di atas Schalke. Tapi, Etoo mengingatkan rekan setimnya untuk waspada.

“Saya tidak akan pernah menganggap remeh kekuatan Schalke. Mereka pasti akan mendatangkan kesulitan bagi kami. Tapi kami juga akan berusaha keras untuk bisa lolos,” lanjut Etoo

source by bola.okezone.com/index

Permalink Leave a Comment

FIFA Sahkan Ukuran Lapangan Sepakbola Baru

March 15, 2008 at 10:22 am (Uncategorized)

Standar ukuran lapangan sepakbola di seluruh dunia akan segera berubah. Otoritas sepakbola dunia FIFA telah menyetujui proposal baru untuk menstandardisasikan ukuran lapangan sepakbola skala internasional.

Lapangan sepakbola internasional itu nantinya akan berukuran 105 meter x 68 meter. Itu diadopsi dari peraturan baru yang dikeluarkan Asosiasi Sepakbola Internasional (IFA).

Tapi, proposal itu tidak akan menyentuh lapangan sepakbola yang telah ada. Contohnya, ukuran lapangan sepakbola Stadion Ginats, di New Jersey, Amerika Serikat tidak akan mengalami perubahan yang berarti akibat proposal baru FIFA.

AP, Sabtu (15/3/2008), melansir, di lain pihak keputusan FIFA melarang Bolivia menggelar laga internasional tidak berubah. Artinya jika memang suatu tim ngotot bermain di ketinggian lebih dari 11 ribu meter, mereka harus beradaptasi selama 2 pekan terlebih dulu untuk melakukan hal itu.

Federasi Sepakbola Bolivia juga harus membangun tempat baru. Mengantisipasi saran FIFA, tempat tersebut nantinya akan dipakai sebagai venue laga kualifikasi Piala Dunia 2010.

source by bola.okezone.com/index.php

Permalink Leave a Comment

Cole dan Lampard Ditangkap Polisi London

March 15, 2008 at 10:19 am (sport)

dialami Ashley Cole dan Frank Lampard. Kedua bintang The Blues itu harus berurusan dengan pihak Kepolisian London sesaat setelah timnya menang 6-1 atas Derby County. Mengapa?

Seperti dilaporkan Daily Mail, Jumat (14/3/2008), Cole dan Lampard ditangkap sesuai pertandingan lanjutan kompetisi Premier League itu karena menyetir mobil sambil menelpon.

Bukan itu saja, kedua pemain timnas Inggris itu juga tidak menggunakan sabuk pengaman saat mengendarai mobil mereka sehingga bisa membahayakan nyawa keduanya.

Alhasil akibat kejadian ini, maka Cole dan Lampard harus membayar denda sebesar 60 juta poundsterling kepada pihak Kepolisian London. Bukan itu saja, Surat Ijin Mengemudi (SIM) Cole dan Lampard juga terancam ditilang.

Ini jelas sebuah pelajaran berharga buat Cole dan Lampard. Meskipun keduanya pemain bintang di Chelsea dan timnas Inggris, namun mereka tidak boleh berbuat semena-mena di jalanan.

source by bola.okezone.com/index.php

Permalink Leave a Comment

Canada falls to Haiti in Olympic qualifier

March 15, 2008 at 10:17 am (sport)

A pair of late goals dented Canada’s chances of advancing in the CONCACAF Olympic qualifying.

Alain Gustave and Leonel Saint-Preux scored 13 minutes apart to rally Haiti to a 2-1 victory over Canada on Friday night.

The loss dropped Canada (0-1-1) to the bottom of the Group B standings along with Mexico (0-1-1).

“We had a good start to the game itself,” Canada coach Nick Dasovic said. “I thought we were on our way to a minimum one point. Our legs went away in the second half again, though. We ran out of gas. It wasn’t a matter of the tactical, it was a matter of the physical.”

Guatemala edged Mexico, 2-1, in Friday’s late game to assure itself of a berth in the semifinals in Nashville, Tennessee.

On Saturday, Canada must beat group leader Guatemala (2-0-0) and hope Haiti (1-0-1) does not defeat Mexico in order to not be eliminated. Mexico and Canada played to a 1-1 tie Wednesday.

As they did in the first round, the Canadians grabbed the early advantage when Tyler Rosenlund scored in the 17th minute for a 1-0 lead.

Rosenlund started in place of Will Johnson, who had the goal against Mexico but was serving a one-match suspension.

Andrzej Ornoch almost doubled the lead in the second half but was denied when Haitian goalkeeper Johnny Placide deflected his shot off the crossbar.

Haiti pulled even when Gustave scored in the 71st minute and forged ahead in the 84th minute, when Saint-Preux drilled a shot from 35 yards past goalkeeper Joshua Wagenaar.

In Group A play Saturday night at Tampa, Florida, the United States (1-0-1) faces Honduras (2-0-0), while Panama (0-2-0) squares off with Cuba (0-1-1).

Honduras already has clinched a berth in the semis, and the Americans can do the same with a victory or tie against Honduras or a loss or tie by Cuba.

The top two teams from Groups A and B will move on to the semifinals, where the winners will earn berths to the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing.

source by sports.yahoo.com/sow/news;

Permalink Leave a Comment

Next page »

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.